Recovery of enteroviruses and poliovirus in Harare sewage using the bag-mediated filtration system at the introduction of the inactivated polio vaccine in Zimbabwe

Authors

  • Vurayai Ruhanya Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Nicolette A Zhou Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
  • Chipo Berejena Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • George Nyandoro Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Paradzai Chibukira Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Arnold Mukaratirwa Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • Kudzai Masunda Harare City, Old Mutual House, Corner Speke Avenue & Sam Nujoma Street, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • John Scott Meschke Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8983-9042

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17159/wsa/2022.v48.i3.3892

Keywords:

BMFS, enteroviruses, poliovirus, wastewater, environmental surveillance

Abstract

Environmental surveillance is a sensitive method for detecting circulating virus in the absence of clinical cases and is important for monitoring progress for poliovirus (PV) eradication. This study used the bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) to determine PV and enterovirus (EV) prevalence in sewage at the transition from oral polio vaccine type 2 (OPV2) use to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) use in Zimbabwe, and examined the correlation between environmental surveillance results and vaccination coverage of OPV. A total of 18 BMFS samples from 6 sampling sites were analysed for the presence of EV and PV via direct RT-qPCR, direct ITD (intratypic differentiation), and the WHO algorithm. EV prevalence in Harare wastewater was 88.9% (16/18) using direct RT-PCR, 61.1% (11/18) using direct ITD, and 77.8% (14/18) using the WHO algorithm. Of the 18 samples analysed using the WHO algorithm, 10 samples (55.6%) were positive for Sabin-like PV type 3 (SL3). Of these 10 samples, 2 were also positive for non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV), resulting in a total of 6 (33.3%) samples positive for NPEV and 4 negative. The sensitivity of isolation in detecting EVs in sewage was 92.9% when comparing direct RT-qPCR results to the WHO algorithm. Using direct ITD, two high-density, low-income sampling sites were negative for SL3 and one low-density, high-income sampling point was negative for SL3 using the WHO algorithm. There was a strong association between relative EV concentration and the number of OPV3 vaccine recipients (r = 0.8590; p = 0.0284) in sampled areas. This study demonstrated the ability of BMFS to detect PVs circulating in Harare wastewater at the beginning of the OPV–IPV switch and can be used to monitor potential reintroduction of wild PV or vaccine-derived PVs from endemic areas.

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Published

2022-07-27

How to Cite

Vurayai Ruhanya, Nicolette A Zhou, Chipo Berejena, George Nyandoro, Paradzai Chibukira, Arnold Mukaratirwa, Kudzai Masunda, & John Scott Meschke. (2022). Recovery of enteroviruses and poliovirus in Harare sewage using the bag-mediated filtration system at the introduction of the inactivated polio vaccine in Zimbabwe. Water SA, 48(3 July). https://doi.org/10.17159/wsa/2022.v48.i3.3892

Issue

Section

Research paper